Cultivation Techniques for Safe Ears of Late Japonica Rice in Jingmen, Hubei Province

As the saying goes: "The cold dew does not bow, cut and feed the old cow." Rice is a warm-tempered crop. Young panicle differentiation to maturity is more sensitive to external environments such as temperature. At the meiosis stage of pollen mother cells (middle and late booting), if the average daily temperature is lower than 17°C, pollen will not develop normally, and the number of pollen grains will be degraded below 15°C, and the number of impractical grains will increase and the duration of heading will be delayed; The average temperature is lower than 20°C and easy to form empty shells and valleys. These two temperature indicators are determined as the critical indicators of safe panicles on the cultivation. In addition, the temperature of the materials below 15°C is quite slow during the grain filling period, and the empty grains are increasing. . In order to replant the late japonica rice to avoid or reduce the chilling temperature, it is necessary to track the weather conditions, grasp the characteristics of the varieties, and take the necessary cultivation measures:
1, Jingmen City, the past three years September and October temperature conditions: September 2004, the average temperature of 23.1 °C, there are two days later than the average temperature is lower than 20.0 °C, October average temperature of 17.3 °C, there are two days later the average daily temperature is low At 15.0°C, the average temperature in September 2005 was 22.9°C, and the daily average temperature was lower than 20.0°C for 7 consecutive days in the later part of the year; the average temperature in October was 17.2°C; the daily average temperature in 3 days was lower than 15.0°C in 3 days; the average temperature in September 2006 At 22.1°C, the average daily temperature was lower than 17.0°C in 1 day in the first half of the year, and the daily average temperature was lower than 20.0°C in the last 3 days. The average temperature in October was 17.3°C, and the daily average temperature in 2 days was lower than 15.0°C in the second half. It can be seen that in the past three years, nine months and ten months, low-temperature weather that was not conducive to late rice booting, heading and flowering, and grouting was found. Although the average daily temperature in the Qujialing region is higher than the average of 0.4°C around the city, and in the remedial measures for disaster prevention, emphasis is placed on planting before June 28, and live cultivation can be carried out 3-5 days earlier, but according to The fertility characteristics of the hybrid No. 3 were estimated. The replanting field was about to reach the spike differentiation on or about August 22, about the beginning of the ear on September 21, and the ear of the ear at the end of September. Therefore, it is crucial to take measures to increase the seed-setting rate of Echangza No.
2. The main characteristics of E'erzaza 3: The plant type is compact, the stems are thick, the leaves are dark, and the flag leaves are relatively wide. Panicles are semi-erect, harder cobs, oval grains, short top awns, moderate threshing. In the regional experiment, there were 197,000 mu of effective panicles, 88.4 cm in plant height, 17.0 cm in panicle length, 115.1 grains per panicle, 97.4 grains, 84.5% fertility rate, and 27.29 g grain weight. The whole growth period was 126.9 days, which was 2.6 days shorter than Ekangza No.1. The disease resistance was identified as SJN and Bacterial blight. It is suitable for rice blast disease-free or mild disease areas in Hubei Province for late rice cultivation.
3, cultivation technology recommendations:
1 Increase seeding rate, increase seedling rate, and ensure the number of basic seedlings. Mu seeding volume 2.5-3.0 kilograms, 100-120 grain seedlings per square meter.
(2) Pay attention to the management of water slurry and achieve the effect of raising the temperature of the field by water insulation and water temperature adjustment. The main point of water management is "Sanshui II drying and moistening." "Sanshui" refers to the shallow water layer that maintains irrigation for 10 days or so at the time of tillering, booting, heading and flowering. The "second sun" refers to the method of using the first light and the second re-lighting. When the total number of seedlings per acre reaches 20-22 million, the water will be drained and the field will be crusted and the foot will not stick to the mud. In shallow water, natural dryness occurs for the second time in the field. Seedlings appear as "Four Seasons", that is, the leaves stand up, the white roots are exposed, the leaf color fades, and the rice plants straighten up. "A moist" refers to the main moisture from Qi Sui to Huang Shu, the water should not be premature.
3 formula fertilization, do a good job outside the top dressing. Base fertilizer is the main fertilizer, followed by topdressing, early application of fertilizer, depending on the seedlings discretion Shi ear fertilizer; reclaimed after drying the field per acre topdressing 5 kg of potassium chloride, defertilization obvious field plus 2.5-4 kg of urea; heading period Mu can be used potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2 kg plus urea 0.5 kg pest control spray; growth throughout the growth period is steady but not prosperous, late premature aging.
4 spray "grain full." In the ear heading stage, select sunny days and use 25 grams of “grain full” or “90%” 2 to 3 grams of water to spray 50 kg foliar per acre, which can be combined with pest control.

5 anti-low temperature. In the low-temperature weather where the average temperature of the rice falls below 20°C in the heading period of the rice, the deep water should be poured and the temperature adjusted with water before the low temperature comes.

6 Strengthen pest control. Bacterial blight is easy to occur after flooding, and this year, the city may have a major occurrence of rice planthoppers, aphids, sheath blight, rice blast, and late syndromes. Therefore, we must continue to do a good job in monitoring and scientific monitoring of pests and diseases. .

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